Academic References

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There have been large numbers of academic publications on the Ecological Footprint over the last twenty years. This page provides a partial list of academic articles, reports and working papers on the Ecological Footprint. We continue to collect references for this page. Please contact us to add references and articles to this page. To access the publications, please contact the authors or the journal directly, or use academic search engines such as Google Scholar.

Peer-Reviewed Academic Papers

Aall, C., Norland, I.T., 2005. The use of the Ecological Footprint in local politics and administration: results and implications from Norway. Local Environment, 10, 159-172. Ayres, R.U., 2000. Commentary on the utility of the ecological footprint concept; Ecological Economics, 32, 347-349.

Bagliani, M., Da Villa, E., Gattolin, M., Niccolucci, V., Patterson, T., Tiezzi, E., 2004. The ecological footprint analysis for the Province of Venice and the relevance of tourism. In Marchettini, N., Brebbia, C.A., Tiezzi E., Wadhwa, L.C.(eds.), The Sustainable City III, WIT Press, Southampton, UK, pp 123-132.

Bagliani, M., Ferlaino, F., Procopio, S., 2003. The analysis of the environmental sustainability of the economic sectors of the Piedmont Region (Italy). In: Tiezzi E., Brebbia C.A., Uso J.L. (eds.), Ecosystems and Sustainable Development. WIT Press, Southampton, UK, pp. 613-622.

Bagliani M., Galli A., Niccolucci V., Marchettini N., 2008. “The ecological footprint analysis applied to a sub-national area: the case of the Province of Siena (Italy)”, Journal of Environmental Management, 86(2), 354-364.

Barrett, J., 2001. Component ecological footprint: developing sustainable scenarios. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 19, 107-108.

Barrett, J., Birch, R., Charrett, N., Wiedmann, T., 2005. Exploring the Application of the Ecological Footprint to Sustainable Consumption Policy. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 7, 303-316.

Barrett, J., Birch, R., Cherrett, N., Simmons, C., 2004. An Analysis of the Policy and Educational Applications of the Ecological Footprint. Stockholm Environmental Institutes, York, UK.

Barrett, J., Vallack, H., Jones, A., Haq, G., 2002. A Material Flow Analysis and Ecological Footprint of York. Technical Report, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Bastianoni, S., Galli, A., Niccolucci, V. and Pulselli, R.M. 2006. The ecological footprint of building construction. In: The Sustainable City IV: Urban regeneration and sustainability. Mander, U., Brebbia, C.A. and Tiezzi, E. (eds.). WIT Press, Southampton, UK, pp. 345-356.

Bastianoni, S., Galli, A., Pulselli, R.M., Niccolucci, N. 2007. Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Natural Capital Appropriation through Building Construction: Practical Case Study in the Italian Context. Ambio 36(7), 559-565.

Bastianoni, S., Niccolucci, V., Pulselli, R.M., Marchettini, N., 2012. Indicator and indicandum: “Sustainable way” vs “prevailing conditions” in the Ecological Footprint. Ecological Indicators, 16, 47-50.

Bastianoni, S., Niccolucci, V., Neri, E., Cranston, G., Galli, A., Wackernagel, M., 2013. Sustainable Development: Ecological Footprint in Accounting. Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, pp. 2467-2481. DOI: 10.1081/E-EEM-120047347 Copyright © 2013 by Taylor & Francis. Available at:

Bicknell, K.B., Ball, R.J., Cullen, R., Bigsby, H., 1998. New methodology for the ecological footprint with an application to the New Zealand economy. Ecological Economics. 27, 149–160.

Borucke M, Moore D, Cranston G, Gracey K, Iha K, Larson J, Lazarus E, Morales JC, Wackernagel M, Galli A. 2013. Accounting for demand and supply of the Biosphere’s regenerative capacity: the National Footprint Accounts’ underlying methodology and framework. Ecological Indicators, 24, 518-533.

Butchart, S.H.M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Almond, R.E.A., Baillie, J.E.M., Bomhard, B., Brown, C., Bruno, J., Carpenter, K.E., Carr, G.M., Chanson, J., Chenery, A.M., Csirke, J., Davidson, N.C., Dentener, F., Foster, M., Galli, A., Galloway, J.N., Genovesi, P., Gregory, R.D., Hockings, M., Kapos, V., Lamarque, J-F., Leverington, F., Loh, J., McGeoch, M.A., McRae, L., Minasyan, A., Hernández Morcillo, M., Oldfield, T.E.E., Pauly, D., Quader, S., Revenga, C., Sauer, J.R., Skolnik, B., Spear, D., Stanwell-Smith, D., Stuart, S.N., Symes, A., Tierney, M., Tyrrell, T.D., Vié, J-C., Watson, R., 2010. Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines. Science, 328, 1164-1168. DOI: 10.1126/science.1187512.

Chen, B., Chen, G.Q., 2006a. Ecological footprint accounting based on emergy - A case study of the Chinese society. Ecological Modelling, 198, 101-114.

Chen, B., Chen, G.Q., 2006b. Modified ecological footprint accounting and analysis based on embodied exergy — a case study of the Chinese society 1981–2001. Ecological Economics, 61, 355-376.

Cuandra, M., Björklund J., 2006. Assessment of economic and ecological carrying capacity of agricultural crops in Nicaragua. Ecological Indicators, 7(1), 133-149.

Deumling, D., Wackernagel, M., Monfreda, C., 2003. Eating up the Earth: how sustainable food systems shrink our ecological footprint. Redefining Progress. Available on line at:

Deutsch, L., Jansson, Å., Troell, M., Rönnbäck, P., Folke, C., Kautsky, N., 2000. The “ecological footprint”: communicating human dependence on nature’s work. Ecological Economics, 32, 351–355. Dias de Oliveira, M.E., Vaughan, B.E., Rykiel, E.J., 2005. Ethanol as Fuel: Energy, Carbon Dioxide Balances, and Ecological Footprint. BioScience, 55, 593-602.

Dietz, T., Rosa, E.A., 1994. Rethinking the environmental impacts of population, affluence and technology. Hum Ecol R,1, 277-300.

Dietz, T., Rosa, E.A., York, R. 2007. Driving the human ecological footprint. Front Ecol Environ, 5, 13-18.

Erb, K.-H., 2004a. Actual Land Demand of Austria 1926 - 2000: A Variation on Ecological Footprint Assessments. Land Use Policy, 21, 247-259.

Ewing, B., Hawkins, T., Wiedmann, T., Galli, A., Ercin, E., Weinzettel, J., Steen-Olsen, K., 2012. Integrating Ecological and Water Footprint Accounting in a Multi-Regional Input-Output Framework. Ecological Indicators, 23, 1-8.

Ferguson, A.R.B., 1999. The Logical Foundations of Ecological Footprints. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1, 149–156.

Ferng, J.J., 2001. Using composition of land multiplier to estimate ecological footprints associated with production activity. Ecological Economics, 37, 159–172.

Ferng, J.J., 2002. Towards a scenario analysis framework for energy footprint. Ecological Economics, 40, 53-69.

Folke, C., Jansson, Å., Larsson, J., Costanza, R., 1997. Ecosystem appropriation by cities. Ambio 26, 167-172.

Fricker, A., 1998. The ecological footprint of New Zealand as a step towards sustainability. Futures, 30: 559-567.

Galli, A., Kitzes, J., Wermer, P., Wackernagel, M., Niccolucci, V., Tiezzi, E., 2007.  An Exploration of The Mathematics Behind The Ecological Footprint. International Journal of Ecodynamics, 2(4), 250-257.

Galli, A., Kitzes, J., Niccolucci, V., Wackernagel, M., Wada, Y., Marchettini, N., 2012. Assessing the global environmental consequences of economic growth through the Ecological Footprint: A focus on China and India. Ecological Indicators, 17, 99-107.

Galli, A., Wiedmann, T., Ercin, E., Knoblauch, D., Ewing, B., Giljum, S. 2012. Integrating Ecological, Carbon, and Water Footprint into a “Footprint Family” of indicators: definition and role in tracking Human Pressure on the Planet. Ecological Indicators, 16, 100-112.

Galli, A., Wackernagel, M., Iha, K., Lazarus, E., in press. Ecological Footprint: implications for biodiversity. Biological Conservation, 10.1016/j.biocon.2013.10.019.

Galli, A., Weinzettel, J., Cranston, G., Ercin, E. 2013. A Footprint Family extended MRIO model to support Europe’s transition to a One Planet Economy. Science of the Total Environment. 461-462, 813-818.

Gassner, J., Narodoslawsky,M., 2004. Sustainable economy and their application to Austria. International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development 3 (2), 120–144.

Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Nonhebel, S., 2002. Consumption patterns and their effects on land required for food. Ecological Economics, 42, 185-199.

Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Nonhebel, S., Ivens, W.P.M.F., 2002. A method to determine land requirements relating to food consumption patterns. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 90, 47-58.

Gössling, S., Borgström Hansson, C., Horstmeier, O., Saggel, S., 2002. Ecological footprint analysis as a tool to assess tourism sustainability. Ecological Economics, 43, 199–211.

Haberl, H., Erb, K.H., Krausmann, F. 2001. How to calculate and interpret ecological footprints for long periods of time: the case of Austria 1926-1995. Ecological Economics, 38, 25-45.

Haberl, H., Wackernagel, M., Krausmann, F., Erb, K.H. and Monfreda, C. 2004b. Ecological footprints and human appropriation of net primary production: a comparison. Land use policy 21, 279-288.

Herendeen, R.A., 2000. Ecological footprint is a vivid indicator of indirect effects. Ecological Economics, 32, 357-358.

Holden, E. and Høyer, K.G. 2005. The ecological footprints of fuels. Transportation Research Part D 10, 395–403.

Hubacek, K., Giljum, S., 2003. Applying physical input-output analysis to estimate land appropriation (ecological footprint) of international trade activities. Ecological Economics, 44, 137-151.

Hunter, C., 2002. Sustainable tourism and the tourist ecological footprint. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 4, 7–20.

Hunter, C., Shaw, J., 2007. The ecological footprint as a key indicator of sustainable tourism. Tourism Management, 28, 46–57.

Jorgenson, A.K, Burns, T.J., 2006. The political-economic causes of change in the ecological footprints of nations, 1991–2001: A quantitative investigation. Social Science Research, in Press, doi: 10.1016/J.ssresearch.2006.06.003.

Kautsky, N., Berg, H., Folke, C., Larsson, J., Troell M., 1997. Ecological footprint for assessment of resource use and development limitations in shrimp and tilapia aquaculture. Aquacult. Res. 28, 753-766.

Kitzes J, Galli A, Bagliani M, Barrett J, Dige G, Ede S, Erb K, Giljum S, Haberl H, Hails C, Jungwirth S, Lenzen M, Lewis K, Loh J, Marchettini N, Messinger H, Milne K, Moles R, Monfreda C, Moran D, Nakano K, Pyhälä A, Rees W, Simmons C, Wackernagel M, Wada Y, Walsh C, Wiedmann T., 2009. A Research Agenda for Improving National Ecological Footprint Accounts. Ecological Economics, 68(7), 1991-2007.

Kitzes, J., Galli, A., Wackernagel, M., Goldfinger, S., Bastianoni, S. 2007a. A “Constant Global Hectare” Method for Representing Ecological Footprint Time Trends. Paper presented at the International Ecological Footprint Conference - Stepping up the Pace: New Developments in Ecological Footprint Methodology, Policy & Practice, 8-10 May, Cardiff, 2007.

Kitzes, J., Peller, A., Goldfinger, S. & Wackernagel, M., 2007b. Current Methods for Calculating National Ecological Footprint Accounts. Science for Environment & Sustainable Society, 4(1), 1-9.

Kitzes, J., Moran, D., Galli, A., Wada, Y., Wackernagel, M., 2009. Interpretation and Application of the Ecological Footprint: A Reply to Fiala (2008). Ecological Economics, 68(4), 929-930.

Kitzes, J., Wackernagel, M., Loh, J., Peller, A., Goldfinger, S., Cheng, D., Tea, K., 2008.  Shrink and Share: Humanity’s Present and Future Ecological Footprint. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363, 467-475.

Lammers, A., Moles, R., Walsh, C., Huijbregts, M.A.J., 2008. Ireland’s footprint: A time series for 1983-2001. Land Use Policy, 25(1), 53-58.

Lenzen, M., Borgström Hansson, C., Bond, S., 2007. On the bioproductivity and land-disturbance metrics of the Ecological Footprint. Ecological Economics, 61, 6-10.

Lenzen, M., Lundie, S., Bransgrove, G., Charet, L., Sack, F., 2003. Assessing the Ecological Footprint of a large metropolitan water supplier: lessons for water management and planning towards sustainability. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 46, 113-141.

Lenzen, M., Murray, J., Sack, F., Wiedmann T., 2007. Shared producer and consumer responsibility - theory and practice. Ecological Economics, 61(1), 27-42.

Lenzen, M., Murray, S.A., 2001c. A modified ecological footprint method and its application to Australia. Ecological Economics, 37, 229–255.

Levett, R., 1998. Footprinting: a great step forward, but tread carefully. Local Environment, 3, 67-74.

Luck, M.A., Darrel Jenerette, G., Wu, J., Grimm, N.B., 2001. The urban funnel model and the spatially heterogeneous ecological footprint. Ecosystems, 4, 782-796.

McDonald, G.W., Forgie, V.E., MacGregor, C., 2006. Treading lightly: Ecofootprints of New Zealand’s ageing population. Ecological Economics, 56, 424-439.

McDonald, G.W., Patterson, M.G., 2004. Ecological Footprints and interdependencies of New Zealand regions. Ecological Economics, 50, 49-67.

McDonald, G.W., Patterson, M.G., 2004. Ecological Footprints and interdependencies of New Zealand regions. Ecological Economics, 50, 49-67.

Medved, S., 2006. Present and future ecological footprint of Slovenia-The influence of energy demand scenarios. Ecological Modelling, 192, 25-36.

Moffatt, I., 2000. Ecological footprints and sustainable development. Ecological Economics, 32, 359-362.

Monfreda, C., Wackernagel, M. and Deumling, D. 2004. Establishing national natural capital accounts based on detailed ecological footprint and biological capacity assessments. Land Use Policy, 21, 231-246.

Moore, D., Cranston, G., Reed, A., Galli, A., 2012. Projecting future human demand on the Earth’s regenerative capacity. Ecological Indicators, 16, 3-10.

Nguyen, H.X., and Yamamoto, R., 2007. Modification of ecological footprint evaluation method to include non-renewable resource consumption using thermodynamic approach. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 51(4), 870-884.

Niccolucci, V, Galli, A., Kitzes, J., Pulselli, R.M., Borsa, S., Marchettini, N., 2008. Ecological Footprint Analysis applied to the production of two Italian wines. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 128, 162-166.

Niccolucci, V., Pulselli, F.M., Tiezzi, E., 2007. Strengthening the threshold hypothesis: Economic and biophysical limits to growth. Ecological Economics, 60, 667-672.

Niccolucci, V., Galli, A., Reed, A., Neri, E., Wackernagel, M., Bastianoni, S., 2011. Towards a 3D National Ecological Footprint Geography. Ecological Modelling, 222, 2939-2944.

Niccolucci, V., Tiezzi, E., Pulselli, F.M., Capineri, C., 2012. Biocapacity vs Ecological Footprint of world regions: A geopolitical interpretation. Ecological Indicators, 16, 23-30.

Niccolucci, V., Bastianoni, S., Tiezzi, E.B.P., Wackernagel, M., Marchettini, N., 2009. How deep is the footprint? A 3D representation. Ecological Modelling, 220(20), 2819–2823.

Nijdam, D.S., Wilting, H.C., Goedkoop, M.J., Madsen, J., 2005. Environmental Load from Dutch Private Consumption: How Much Damage Takes Place Abroad? Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9, 147-168.

Nijkamp, P., Rossi, E., Vindigni, G., 2004. Ecological footprints in plural: a meta-analytic comparison of empirical results. Regional Studies, 28, 747-765.

Olgyay, V. and Herdt, J. 2004. The application of ecosystems services criteria for green building assessment. Solar Energy 77, 389-398.

Opschoor, H., 2000. The ecological footprint: measuring rod or metaphor? Ecological Economics, 32, 363-365.

Patterson, T.M., Niccolucci, V., Bastianoni, S., 2007. Beyond “more is better”: Ecological footprint accounting for tourism and consumption in Val di Merse, Italy. Ecological Economics, 62(3-4), 747-756.

Patterson, T.M., Niccolucci, V., Marchettini, N., 2008. Adaptive environmental management of tourism in the Province of Siena, Italy using the ecological footprint. Journal of Environmental Management, 86(2), 407-418.

Peeters, P., Schouten, F., 2006. Reducing the ecological footprint of inbound tourism and transport to Amsterdam. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14, 157–171.

Pulselli, F.M., Ciampalini, F., Leipert, C., Tiezzi, E. 2008. Integrating methods for the environmental sustainability: The SPIn-Eco Project in the Province of Siena (Italy). Journal of Environmental Management, 86(2), 332-341.

Rapport, D.J., 2000. Ecological footprints and ecosystem health: complementary approaches to a sustainable future. Ecological Economics, 32, 367-370.

Rees, W.E., 1992. Ecological footprints and appropriated carrying capacity: What urban economics leaves out. Environment and Urbanization,  4, 121-130.

Rees, W.E., 1996. Revisiting Carrying Capacity: Area-Based Indicators of Sustainability. Population and Environment, 17, 195-215.

Rees, W.E., 2001. Ecological Footprint, Concept of. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Levin, S., Editor-in-Chief). Vol 2, pp 229 –244. Academic Press, San Diego.

Rees, W.E., 2003. Economic Development and Environmental Protection: An Ecological Economics Perspective. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 86, 29-45.

Rees, W.E., 2006. Ecological Footprints and Bio-Capacity: Essential Elements in Sustainability Assessment. In: Dewulf, J., Van Langenhove, H. (eds), Renewables-Based Technology: Sustainability Assessment. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp. 143-158.

Rees, W.E., Wackernagel, M., 1996. Urban ecological footprints: why cities cannot be sustainable - and why they are a key to sustainability. Environ Impact Assess Rev 16, 223-248.

Sanderson, E.W., Jaiteh, M., Levy, M.A., Redford, K.H., Wannebo, A.V., Woolmer, G., 2002. The Human Footprint and the Last of the Wild. BioScience, 52(10), 891-904.

Senbel, M., McDaniels, T., Dowlatabadi, H., 2003. The ecological footprint: a non-monetary metric of human consumption applied to North America; Global Environmental Change, 13, 83-100.

Simmons, C., Lewis, K., Barrett, J., 2000. Two feet-two approaches: a component-based model of ecological footprinting? Ecological Economics, 32, 375-380.

Simpson, R.W., Petroeschevsky, A., Lowe, I., 2000. An ecological footprint analysis for Australia, Australian Journal of Environmental Management, 7, 11-18.

Stoeglehner, G., Levy, J.K., Neugebauer, G.C., 2005. Improving the ecological footprint of nuclear energy: a risk-based lifecycle assessment approach for critical infrastructure systems. International Journal of Critical Infrastructures, 1(4), 394–403.

Sutton, P. 2003. An empirical environmental Sustainability Index derived solely from nighttime satellite imagery and ecosystem service valuation. Popul Environ, 24, 293-311.

Sutton, P.C., Anderson, S., Tuttle, B.T., Morse, L., 2012. The real wealth of nations: Mapping and monetizing the human ecological footprint. Ecological Indicators, 16, 11-22.

Torras, M. 2003. An ecological footprint approach to external debt relief. World Development 31, 2161-2171.

Turner, K., Lenzen, M., Wiedmann, T., Barrett, J., 2007. Examining the global environmental impact of regional consumption activites – Part 1: A technical note on combining input-output and ecological footprint analysis. Ecological Economics, 62(1), 37-44.

van den Bergh, J.C.J.M., Verbruggen, H., 1999. Spatial sustainability, trade and indicators: an evaluation of the “ecological footprint”. Ecological Economics, 29, 61-72.

Van Kooten, G.C., Bulte, E.H., 2000. The ecological footprint: useful science or politics? Ecological Economics, 32, 385-389.

Van Vuuren, D.P., Bouwman, L.F., 2005. Exploring past and future changes in the ecological footprint for world regions. Ecological Economics, 52, 43-62.

van Vuuren, D.P., Smeets, E.M.W., 2000. Ecological footprints of Benin, Bhutan, Costa Rica and the Netherlands. Ecological Economics, 34, 115–130.

Venetoulis, J., Talberth, J., 2008. Refining the ecological footprint. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 10, 441-469.

Wackernagel, M. and Yount, J.D. 1998. The ecological footprint: an indicator of progress toward regional sustainability. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 51, 511–529.

Wackernagel, M., Galli, A., 2007. An overview on ecological footprint and sustainable development: a chat with Mathis Wackernagel. International Journal of Ecodynamics, 2 (1), 1-9.

Wackernagel, M., Kitzes, J., Moran, D., Goldfinger, S. and Thomas, M., 2006. The ecological footprint of cities and regions: comparing resource availability with resource demand. Environ. Urban. 18, 103-112.

Wackernagel, M., Lewan, L. and Hansson, C.B., 1999a. Evaluating the use of natural capital with the ecological footprint. Ambio 28, 604–612.

Wackernagel, M., Monfreda, C., Erb, K.-H., Haberl, H., Schulz, N.B., 2004. Ecological footprint time series of Austria, the Philippines, and South Korea for 1961-1999: comparing the conventional approach to an ‘actual land area’ approach. Land use policy, 21, 261-269.

Wackernagel, M., Monfreda, C., Moran, D., Wermer, P., Goldfinger, S., Deumling, D. & Murray, M., 2005. National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts 2005: the underlying calculation method. Global Footprint Network, Oakland, Available on line at:

Wackernagel, M., Monfreda, C., Schulz, N.B., Erb, K.H., Haberl, H., Krausmann, F., 2004a. Calculating national and global ecological footprint time series: resolving conceptual challenges. Land use policy, 21, 271-278.

Wackernagel, M., Onisto, L., Bello, P., Linares, A.C., Falfán, L., García, J.M., Suárez, G.A.I., Suárez, G.M.G., 1999b. National natural capital accounting with the ecological footprint concept. Ecological Economics, 29, 375–390.

Wackernagel, M., Schulz, N.B., Deumling, D., Linares, A.C., Jenkins, M., Kapos, V., Monfreda, C., Loh, J., Myers, N., Norgaard, R., Randers, J. 2002. Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 99, 9266-9271.

Wackernagel, M., Silverstein, J., 2000. Big things first: focusing on the scale imperative with the ecological footprint. Ecological Economics, 32(3), 391-394.

Wackernagel, M., White, S., Moran, D., 2004. Using Ecological Footprint accounts: from analysis to applications. Int. J. Environment and Sustainable Development, 3, 293-315.

Warren-Rhodes, K., Koenig, A., 2001 Ecosystem appropriation by Hong Kong and its implications for sustainable development. Ecological Economics, 39, 347-359.

Warren-Rhodes, K., Sadovy, Y. and Cesar, H. 2003. Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: A case study of the live reef fish food trade. Ambio, 32, 481-488.

White, T.J., 2007. Sharing resources: The global distribution of the Ecological Footprint. Ecological Economics, 64(2), 402-410.

Wiedmann, T., Lenzen, M., 2007. On the Conversion between local and global hectares in Ecological Footprint analysis. Ecological Economics, 60, 673-677.

Wiedmann, T., Lenzen, M., Turner, K., Barrett, J., 2007. Examining the global environmental impact of regional consumption activites – Part 2: Review of input-output models for the assessment of environmental impacts embodied in trade. Ecological Economics, 61(1), 15-26.

Wiedmann, T., Minx, J., Barrett, J., Wackernagel, M., 2006. Allocating ecological footprints to final consumption categories with input–output analysis. Ecological Economics, 56, 28-48.

Wiedmann, T., Barrett, J., 2010. A Review of the Ecological Footprint Indicator -Perceptions and Methods. Sustainability, 2(6), 1645-1693.

Weinzettel, J., Hertwich, E.G., Peters, G.P., Steen-Olsen, S., Galli, A., 2013. Affluence drives the global displacement of land use. Global Environmental Change, 23, 433–438.

Wood, R., Lenzen, M., 2003. An application of a modified ecological footprint method and structural path analysis in a comparative institutional study. Local Environment, 8, 365-386.

York, R., Rosa, E.A., Dietz, T. 2003. STIRPAT, IPAT and ImPACT: analytic tools for unpacking the driving forces of environmental impacts. Ecological Economics, 46, 351-365.

York, R., Rosa, E.A., Dietz, T. 2003. Footprints on the Earth: The Environmental Consequences of Modernity. American Sociological Review, 68(2), 279-300.

Yue, D., Xu, X., Li, Z., Hui, C., Li, W., Yang, H., Ge, J., 2006. Spatiotemporal analysis of ecological footprint and biological capacity of Gansu, China 1991–2015: Down from the environmental cliff. Ecological Economics, 58, 393-406.

Zhao, S., Li, Z., Li, W., 2005. A modified method of ecological footprint calculation and its application. Ecological Modelling, 185, 65-75.

Books or Reports

Ambiente Italia, 2003. European Common Indicators: Towards a Local Sustainability Profile. Final Project Report Development, Refinement, Management and Evaluation of European Common Indicators Project

CBD SBSTTA (Convention on Biological Diversity Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice) 2005.  Indicators for Assessing Progress Towards the 2010 Target: Ecological Footprint and Related Concepts.  Note by the Executive Secretary, SBSTTA Eleventh Meeting, Montreal, 28 November – 2 December 2005.

Chambers, G. (Editor), 2001. Ecological Footprinting: A Technical Report to the STOA Panel. Published by European Parliament, Directorate General for Research, Directorate A, The SOTA Programme.

CRAS 2004. Ecological Footprint - Un Approfondimento sull’Impronta Ecologica dell’Edilizia Residenziale in Italia. Sixth Report. International Association for Environmental Design (IAED). Edizioni Papageno, Palermo, Italy. (In Italian).

DG Environment (Directorate General of the Environment, European Commission) 2007. Potential of the Ecological Footprint for monitoring environmental impact from natural resources use – Analyse the potential of the Ecological Footprint and related assessment tools for use in the EU’s Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources. Ongoing assessment.

George, C., Dias, S., 2005. Sustainable Consumption and Production - Development of an Evidence Base, Study of Ecological Footprinting. Final Report (Revised) – June 2005, Prepared for Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs. Available on-line at:

Giljum, S., Hammer, M., Stocker, A., Lackner, M., Best, A., Blobel, D., Ingwersen, W., Naumann, S., Neubauer, A., Simmons, C., Lewis, K., Shmelev, S., 2007. Scientific assessment and evaluation of the indicator “Ecological Footprint“. Final project report. German Federal Environment Agency, Dessau.

James, N., Desai, P., 2003. One Planet Living in the Thames Gateway—A WWF-UK One Million Sustainable Homes Campaign Report. BioRegional Development Group, Surrey, UK; June.

Lenzen, M., Murray, S.A., 2003. The Ecological Footprint – Issue and Trends. ISA Research Paper 01-03. The University of Sidney. Available on-line at:

Lenzen, M., Wackernagel, M., Lauck, B., Wermer, P., 2005. The Ecological Footprint of the State of Victoria. University of Sydney, Global Footprint Network and Environment Protection Authority, Victoria.

Lenzen, M., Wiedmann, T., Foran, B., Dey, C., Widmer-Cooper, A., Williams, M., Ohlemüller, R. 2007. Forecasting the Ecological Footprint of Nations: a blueprint for a dynamic approach. ISA Research Paper 07/01.

Lewan, L. and Simmons, C. 2001. The use of Ecological Footprint and Biocapacity Analyses as Sustainability Indicators for Sub-national Geographical Areas: a Recommended way Forward. Final Report. European Common Indicators Project EUROCITIES/Ambiente Italia.

Lovink, J.S., Wackernagel, M., Goldfinger, S.H., 2004. Eco-Insurance: Risk Management for the 21st Century. Available at:

Meadows, D.H., Randers, J., Meadow, D.L., 2004. Limits to Growth – The 30-year Update. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, White River Junction, Vermont, USA.

Onisto, L.J., Krause, E., Wackernagel, M., 1997. How big is Toronto’s ecological footprint? Using the concept of appropriated carrying capacity for measuring sustainability. Centro de estudios para la sustenibilidad and The City of Toronto. Available on-line at:

Pulselli, F.M., Bastianoni, S., Marchettini, N., Tiezzi, E., forthcoming. The Road to Sustainability. WIT Press, Southampton, UK.

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